Articles related to Covid -19 associated with Pregnancy

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Protocol for a prospective, hospitalbased registry of pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection in India: PregCovid Registry study

Authors: Rahul K Gajbhiye ,1 Niraj N Mahajan,2 Rakesh Waghmare,3 Suchitra V Surve,4 Prashant Howal,3 Aishwarya Bhurke,4 Merlin Pious,1 Deepak N Modi,5 Smita D mahale

ABSTRACT Introduction: Pregnant women are at increased risk of contracting COVID-19 due to several factors and therefore require special attention. However, the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on pregnant women and their newborns remain uncharted. The PregCovid registry aims to document the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on pregnant, postpartum women and their newborns. The aim of the registry is also to determine mother-to-child transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection in India. Methods and analysis: PregCovid is a hospital-based registry for capturing information of pregnant, postpartum women with COVID-19 and their newborns in India. Medical case records of pregnant and postpartum women with a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 will be captured in real-time using an online electronic patient record software. The data analysis will be carried out for symptoms, the severity of COVID-19, pregnancy complications, maternal morbidity and mortality, neonatal complications, motherto-child transmission, etc. Data analysis will be carried out for different waves of the COVID-19 pandemic for rapid response and developing strategies well in advance to manage pregnant women infected with SARS-CoV-2. The evidence generated from the registry will be regularly shared with the appropriate authorities for policy decisions. Thus, the registry data may be useful for planning the strategies for better management of pregnant women with COVID-19. Ethics and dissemination: The study has been approved by the Institutional Ethics Committees of all the participating study sites under the Medical Education and Drugs Department, Government of Maharashtra, Topiwala National Medical College & BYL Nair Charitable Hospital, Mumbai and ICMR-National Institute for Research in Reproductive and Child Health, Mumbai, India. The results from this study will be disseminated with local, state, and national health authorities, collaborators and the general population on the study website ( as well as dissemination through scientific meetings and publications. Trial registration number: CTRI/2020/05/025423
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Effect of in utero exposure to SARSCoV-2 infection on pregnancy outcomes and growth and development of infants: protocol for a multicentre ambispective cohort study in India

Authors: Rupsa Banerjee ,1 Sutapa B Neogi,2 Ashoo Grover,3 Preetha G S,1 Usha Agrawal4

ABSTRACT Introduction: Poor pregnancy and neonatal outcomes in infants born to COVID-19 positive mothers have been reported, but there is insufficient evidence regarding subsequent growth and development of these children. Our study aims to explore the effect of in-utero exposure to SARS-CoV-2 on pregnancy outcomes and growth and development of infants. Methods and analysis: A multicentric ambispective cohort study with comparison group (1:1) will be conducted at six sites. A total of 2400 participants (exposure cohort, n=1200; comparison cohort, n=1200), ie, 400 participants from each site (200 retrospectively; 200 prospectively) will be included. Exposure cohort will be infants born to women with documented COVID-19 infection anytime during pregnancy and comparison cohort will be infants born to women who did not test positive for SARS-CoV-2 anytime during pregnancy. All infants will be followed up till 1year of age. Anthropometric measurement, age of attainment of developmental milestones and clinical examination findings will be recorded at each follow-up. Data regarding possible cofactors affecting the outcomes will be collected from both groups and adjusted for during analysis. The two groups will be compared for prevalence of every variable considered in the study. Relative risk, attributable and population attributable risks will be calculated. All risk factors with p <0.1 on bivariate analysis will be subjected to multiple logistic regression analysis. A final multivariable model will be developed by including the statistically significant risk factors. Ethics and dissemination: The study has been approved by the Institutional Review Board of IIHMR Delhi (IRB/2021-2022/006) and will be required to be approved at all participating study sites. The study is scheduled from September 2021 to August 2023. Data from retrospective cohort will be reported by August 2022. All participants will provide written informed consent. We plan to publish our results in a peer-reviewed journal and present findings at academic conferences.
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Effect of restrictions imposed due to COVID-19 pandemic on the antenatal care and pregnancy outcomes: a prospective observational study from rural North India

Authors: Lajya Devi Goyal,1 Priyanka Garg,1 Madhur Verma ,2 Navdeep Kaur ,1 Dapinder Bakshi,3 Jatinder Arora

AbstractObjectives: To assess the difficulties faced by the pregnant women in seeking appropriate antenatal care due to the restrictions imposed during the COVID-19 pandemic; assess the difficulties encountered during delivery and postpartum period; the suitability of the teleconsultation services offered; effect of COVID-19 infection on pregnancy outcomes and the effect of restrictions on the nutrition profile of the pregnant women. Design: Prospective observational study. Setting and participants: We included 1374 pregnant women from the rural areas of three districts of Punjab, India registered at government health centres before the implementation of lockdown due to the COVID-19 pandemic on 24 March 2020.Primary and secondary outcome measures: The primary outcome was the difficulties faced by the women during their pregnancies due to restrictions imposed during the lockdown. The secondary outcomes included the effect of COVID-19 infections on pregnancy outcomes, satisfaction from the telemedicine services and restrictions on the nutrition profile of the pregnant women. Results: One-third of the women (38.4%) considered their last pregnancy unplanned. Women faced difficulties due to the restrictions in getting adequate nutrition (76.5%), accessing transportation facilities (35.4%), consultations from doctors (22.4%) or getting an ultrasonography scan (48.7%). One-fifth (21.9%) of women could not access safe abortion services. Only 3.6% of respondents ever took any teleconsultation services offered by the government. Most of them felt unsatisfied compared with routine visits (77.5%). COVID-19-infected women were primarily asymptomatic (76.1%), but there was a high incidence of preterm birth (42.8%). Frontline workers could visit 64.3% of the women in the postpartum period despite restrictions. Conclusions: Lockdown compromised the antenatal care in our study area while the frontline workers attempted to minimise the inconvenience. Telemedicine services did not prove to be of many benefits to pregnant women and should only work as a supplement to the existing protocols of antenatal care.

Successful outcome of severe COVID-19 in pregnancy: individualised approach

Authors: Anupama Dave ,1 Priyansha Joshi,1 Sunil Jaiswal,2 Pradnya Kapdeo1

Abstract: A 32-year-old homemaker, 28 weeks pregnant, was admitted to a dedicated COVID-19 hospital with a history of dyspnoea for 1 day; oral and nasopharyngeal swabs were positive for SARS-CoV-2 on real-time PCR. She had type 1 respiratory failure and oxygen saturation of 88%, so was put on non-invasive ventilation. Treatment as per guidelines was started. Given her deteriorating condition, a decision to deliver was taken and induction of labour was done. Her condition improved after delivery; but on day 5, she was suspected to have rhino-orbital mucormycosis and antifungals were started. Her condition improved gradually and she was discharged home. This case highlights the importance of individualised decision-making in cases with COVID-19 infection in pregnancy and that prompt treatment of the complications like mucormycosis would be lifesaving.

Review of care and management of pregnant women during COVID-19 pandemic.

Authors: Manu Goyal * , Pratibha Singh , Nitesh Melana.

Title: Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARSCoV-2). Covid-19 pandemic began in the end of 2019 and spread all over the world in a short duration of time. Measures have been taken such as social distancing, compulsory lockdown and restriction of activities so as to prevent spread of virus. It has posed problem to both the antenatal women and maternity care workers. The care and management of pregnant women is an essential service to identify high-risk mothers and also to have good pregnancy outcome for both mother and baby. Any delay in this may lead to catastrophe, hence this issue needs to be addressed properly. This review briefs about the literature available on antenatal care during covid-19 pandemic. Pregnancy is not very adversely affected by the virus itself but extra caution should be taken to prevent and complications should they arise. The norms of social distancing by patients and wearing personal protective equipment by hospital staff, testing of pregnant women should be followed as per regional and national guidelines. This will help ensure safety of all people along with care to the expecting mother. The presence of covid-19 infection should not deter women from receiving antenatal care nor should the obstetric treatment be delayed during labor. Decision for timing and mode of delivery should be individualised based on obstetric indications and maternalefetal status. © 2020 Taiwan Association of Obstetrics & Gynecology. Publishing services by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license .


COVID-19-related anxiety and concerns expressed by pregnant and postpartum women—a survey among obstetricians.

Authors: Madhuri H. Nanjundaswamy1 & Lakshmi Shiva1 & Geetha Desai1 & Sundarnag Ganjekar1 & Thomas Kishore2 & Uma Ram3 & Veena Satyanarayana2 & Harish Thippeswamy1 & Prabha S. Chandra

Abstract: This paper from India describes anxieties that pregnant and postpartum women reported to obstetricians during the COVID-19 pandemic. Of the 118 obstetricians who responded to an online survey, most had been contacted for concerns about hospital visits (72.65%), methods of protection (60.17%), the safety of the infant (52.14%), anxieties related to social media messages (40.68%) and contracting the infection (39.83%). Obstetricians felt the need for resources such as videos, websites and counselling skills to handle COVID-related anxiety among perinatal women.

COVID-19 Pandemic and Pregnancy in Kidney Disease.

Authors: Divya Bajpai and Silvi Shah

Title: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a rapidly spreading pandemic. Owing to changes in the immune system and respiratory physiology, pregnant women are vulnerable to severe viral pneumonia. We review the clinical course, pregnancy outcomes, and management of women with COVID-19 in pregnancy with a focus on those with kidney involvement. Current evidence does not show an increased risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 during pregnancy and the maternal course appears to be similar to nonpregnant patients. However, severe maternal disease can lead to complex management challenges and has shown to be associated with higher incidence of preterm and caesarean births. The risk of congenital infection with SARS-CoV-2 is not known. All neonates must be considered as highrisk contacts and should be screened at birth and isolated. Pregnant women should follow all measures to prevent SARS-CoV-2 exposure and this fear should not compromise antenatal care. Use of telemedicine, videoconferencing, and noninvasive fetal and maternal home monitoring devices should be encouraged. High-risk pregnant patients with comorbidities and COVID-19 require hospitalization and close monitoring. Pregnant women with COVID-19 and kidney disease are a high-risk group and should be managed by a multidisciplinary team approach including a nephrologist and neonatologist.

Maternal and perinatal outcomes in pregnant women infected by SARS-CoV-2: A meta-analysis

Authors: Ioannis Bellosa , Aakash Panditab, *, Raffaella Panzac

Evidence concerning coronavirus disease-19 (covid-19) in pregnancy is still scarce and scattered. This meta-analysis aims to evaluate maternal and neonatal outcomes in covid-19 pregnancies and identify factors associated with perinatal viral transmission. Medline, Scopus, CENTRAL, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases were systematically searched to 3 June 2020. Overall, 16 observational studies and 44 case reports/series were included. Fever was the most frequent maternal symptom, followed by cough and shortness of breath, while about 15 % of infected were asymptomatic. Severe disease was estimated to occur in 11 % of women in case reports/series and in 7 % (95 % CI: 4 %–10 %) in observational studies. Two maternal deaths were reported. The rate of neonatal transmission did not differ between women with and without severe disease (OR: 1.94, 95 % CI: 0.50–7.60). Preterm birth occurred in 29.7 % and 16 % (95 % CI: 11 %–21 %) in data obtained from case series and observational studies, respectively. Stillbirth occurred in 3 cases and 2 neonatal deaths were observed. Vertical transmission was suspected in 4 cases. Fever was the most common neonatal symptom (40 %), followed by shortness of breath (28 %) and vomiting (24 %), while 20 % of neonates were totally asymptomatic. In conclusion, the maternal and neonatal clinical course the infection is typically mild, presenting low mortality rates. The risk of vertical transmission is suggested to be low and may not be affected by the severity of maternal disease. Further large-scale studies are needed to clarify the risk factors associated with viral transmission and severe infection in the neonatal population.


Diagnosis and principles of management of gestational diabetes mellitus in the prevailing COVID-19 pandemic.

Authors: Veeraswamy Seshiah & Vijayam Balaji & Samar Banerjee & Rakesh Sahay & Hema Divakar & Rajesh Jain & Rajeev Chawla & Ashok Kumar Das & Sunil Gupta8 & Dharani Krishnan

Abstract : Limited medical facilities are available due to Covid-19 pandemic. Nevertheless, all efforts should be made in planning judicial and possible methods of delivering health care, particularly to pregnant woman with GDM. GDM may play a crucial role in the increasing prevalence of diabetes and obesity and also may be the origin of cardiometabolic diseases. Methods It is mandatary to diagnose and care pregnant woman with GDM. The test suggested to diagnose GDM has to be evidence based and in this regard “a single test procedure” evaluated meets this requirement. This doable test has been accepted by the Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group India (DIPSI) and approved by MHFW-GOI, WHO, International Diabetes Federation, and International Federation of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. MHFW-GOI also recommends testing at first antenatal visit and then at 24–28 weeks of gestation. This opportunity can also be utilized for performing ultrasonography for assessing fetal development. Result The first-line management is MNT and life style modifications. Non-responders may require insulin or OHA. The target glycemic control is FPG ~ 5.0 mmol/dl (90 mg/dl) and 2 h PPPG ~ 6.7 mmol/dl (120 mg/dl). The goal is to obtain newborns birth weight appropriate for gestational age between 2.5 and 3.5 kg, a step to prevent offspring developing diabetes. Conclusion The essential precaution required during COVID pandemic is to wear face mask, avoid crowded places, and maintain social distancing. Finally, the economical and evidence based “single test procedure” of DIPSI is most appropriate for screening during the COVID pandemic.


Breast Feeding in Suspected or Confrmed Cases of COVID 19–a New Perspective.

Author: R. Hethyshi

Abstract The encounter with the rampant novel Corona virus infection has led the healthcare system across the world to update and modify its tools to fght this pandemic. Pregnancy, childbirth and breast feeding are a set of special situations to be dealt in women aficted with Covid-19. Currently there is no universal consensus on managing the issue of breast feeding with rooming-in of the neonates in women with suspected or confrmed Covid-19. Literature is still evolving with contradictory guidelines from various authorities across the globe. This review intends to analyse the available evidence on managing breast feeding in such women and to derive a practically plausible approach in handling such situations.


Impact of the Coronavirus Infection in Pregnancy: A Preliminary Study of 141 Patients

Authors: Arun Harishchandra Nayak1 · Deepali Swapnil Kapote1 · Michelle Fonseca1 · Niranjan Chavan2 · Rahul Mayekar2 · Meenal Sarmalkar2 · Amarjeet Bawa2

The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is the most challenging health crisis that we are facing today. Against the backdrop of this pandemic, it becomes imperative to study the efects of this infection on pregnancy and its outcome. Hence, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the efects of COVID-19 infection on the maternal morbidity and mortality, the course of labour as well as the neonatal outcome. Materials and Methods A total of 977 pregnant women were included in the study, from 1st April to 15th May 2020 at a tertiary care hospital. There were 141 women who tested COVID positive and remaining 836 patients were included in the COVID negative group. Findings were compared in both the groups. Results The incidence of COVID positive pregnant women was found to be 14.43%. More patients delivered by LSCS in the COVID positive and the COVID negative group (50%) as compared to COVID negative group (47%), (p>0.05). Low APGAR score (0-3) was observed in 2(1.52%) neonates of COVID positive mothers and in 15 (1.91%) neonates of COVID negative mothers. Overall most of the babies were healthy. Out of all babies tested, 3 were detected positive initially which were retested on day 5 and were found to be negative. Conclusion There is no signifcant efect of COVID infection on maternal and foetal outcome in pregnancy and there is no evidence of vertical transmission of the COVID-19 infection but long-term follow-up of these babies is recommended.